A link with empty label Screen reader compatibility

Last updated: October 16, 2016

Expected Result: causes problems in some screen readers

Actual Result: causes problems in 28 screen reader / browser combinations

For expected failures, the results show which AT combos the failures affect. Results are recorded from the user's viewpoint, so describe the user impact of authoring errors.

Code used for this test:


        <p>Preceding content</p>
        <a href='javascript:void(0);'></a>
    

Change History

Last updated: October 16, 2016

Screen readerBrowserModeNotesWhat the user hears
OK NVDA 2016.2FF48 ReadingLink not displayed, and not read.
Fail NVDA 2016.2FF48 TabbingLink not displayed, "blank" read out for focusable label. Blank
Fail NVDA 2016.2IE11 ReadingLink not displayed, but link URL read out. Link void zero
Fail NVDA 2016.2IE11 TabbingLink not displayed, but link URL read out. Void zero, link
OK NVDA 2015.2FF41 ReadingLink not displayed, and not read.
Fail NVDA 2015.2FF41 TabbingLink not displayed, "blank" read out for focusable label. Blank
Fail NVDA 2015.2IE11 ReadingLink not displayed, but link URL read out. Link void zero
Fail NVDA 2015.2IE11 TabbingLink not displayed, but link URL read out. Void zero, link
OK NVDA 2014.1FF29 ReadingLink not displayed, and not read.
Fail NVDA 2014.1FF29 TabbingLink not displayed, "blank" read out for focusable label. Blank
Fail NVDA 2014.1IE11 ReadingLink not displayed, but link URL read out. Link void zero
OK NVDA 2014.1IE11 TabbingLink not displayed, and not read.
Fail JAWS 17.0.2619FF48 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail JAWS 17.0.2619FF48 TabbingNo link displayed, focus indicator very hard to see, link gibberish read by screen reader. Void left paren zero right paren, link
Fail JAWS 17.0.2619IE11 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail JAWS 17.0.2619IE11 TabbingNo link displayed, focus indicator very hard to see, link gibberish read by screen reader. Void left paren zero right paren, link
Fail JAWS 16.0.4350FF41 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail JAWS 16.0.4350FF41 TabbingNo link displayed, focus indicator very hard to see, link gibberish read by screen reader. Void left paren zero right paren, link
Fail JAWS 16.0.4350IE11 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail JAWS 16.0.4350IE11 TabbingNo link displayed, focus indicator very hard to see, link gibberish read by screen reader. Void left paren zero right paren, link
Fail JAWS 15.0.9023FF29 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail JAWS 15.0.9023FF29 TabbingNo link displayed, focus indicator very hard to see, link gibberish read by screen reader. Void left paren zero right paren, link
Fail JAWS 15.0.9023IE11 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail JAWS 15.0.9023IE11 TabbingNo link displayed, focus indicator very hard to see, link gibberish read by screen reader. Void left paren zero right paren, link
Fail JAWS 14.0.9002FF29 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail JAWS 14.0.9002FF29 TabbingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Void left paren zero right paren, link
Fail JAWS 14.0.9002IE11 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail JAWS 14.0.9002IE11 TabbingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Void left paren zero right paren, link
Fail WindowEyes 9.2IE11 ReadingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
Fail WindowEyes 9.2IE11 TabbingNo link displayed, link gibberish read by screen reader. Link, void left paren zero right paren
OK WindowEyes 8.4IE11 ReadingNot visible in browser, and ignored in WindowEyes.
Fail WindowEyes 8.4IE11 TabbingText of previous element read as link label. Link, preceding content
OK VoiceOver OSX 10.11Safari 9.1.2 ReadingLink not displayed, and not read.
OK VoiceOver OSX 10.11Safari 9.1.2 TabbingLink not displayed, and not read.
OK VoiceOver OSX 10.10Safari 9.0.1 ReadingLink not displayed, and not read.
OK VoiceOver OSX 10.10Safari 9.0.1 TabbingLink not displayed, and not read.
OK VoiceOver OSX 10.9Safari 7.0.3 ReadingLink not displayed, and not read.
OK VoiceOver OSX 10.9Safari 7.0.3 TabbingLink not displayed, and not read.
OK VoiceOver iOS 9.1Safari iOS 9.1TouchLink not displayed, and not read.
Fail VoiceOver iOS 8.4Safari iOS 8.4TouchText of previous element read out as link label. Preceding content, link
OK VoiceOver iOS 7.1Safari iOS 7.1TouchLink not visible in browser, and ignored in VoiceOver.
OK Dolphin SR 15.05IE11 ReadingLink not displayed, and not read.
OK Dolphin SR 15.05IE11 TabbingLink not displayed, and not read.

SortSite rules: AccWcag1-13.1.1

Test notes

All tests were carried out with screen reader factory settings. JAWS in particular has a wide variety of settings controlling exactly what gets spoken.

Screen readers allow users to interact in different modes, and can produce very different results in each mode. The modes used in these tests are:

In the «What the user hears» column: