[Skip navigation links]
Login

HTML elements Screen reader compatibility

Last updated: October 16, 2021

Shows how different HTML elements behave in commonly used screen readers

The results include two types of test:

a

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (91% average)79% 93% 100% 87% 96% 100% 90% 90%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Click Here link with aria-describedby attributeGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Click Here link with title attributeBadGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterBetter
Should work. Works in 100% Link containing img with altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% Link containing img with titleGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Link text replaced by aria-label attributeBetterBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Link text replaced by aria-labelledby attributeBadBetterGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% a element placeholder link with no event handler or href attributeGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBadGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% fieldset containing linksBadBetterGoodBadGoodGoodBetterBad
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% A link with empty labelBadBadBadBadBadBadBetterBetter
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% A link with non-breaking space as labelBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Link target opens in new windowBadBadBadBadBadBadBetterBetter
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Link containing img with null altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Link containing img without altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Link with aria-label containing img with no altGoodBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Link with aria-labelledby containing img with no altBadBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Link with onclick but no hrefBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Link with title containing img with no altGoodBetterGoodWorseBetterGoodBetterGood

abbr

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (0% average)0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Should work. Fails in 76% - 100% abbr with titleBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

acronym

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% acronym with titleBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

applet

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (70% average)40% 89% 100% 62% 59% 85% 46% 100%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% applet inside figure with figcaption elementGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% applet with aria-label attributeGoodBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% applet with aria-labelledby attributeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% applet with title attributeBadBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% applet with fallback contentBadBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 26% - 50% applet with alt attributeBadBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 26% - 50% applet with no descriptionBadBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterGood

area

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (67% average)40% 60% 100% 94% 45% 100% 74% 11%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% area and img with alt attributesBadBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% area with alt attribute and img with null altBadGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with aria-label attributeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with aria-labelledby attributeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with title attributeBadBadGoodGoodBadGoodBetterBad
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Image map with no name attributeBadBetterBadGoodBetterBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% area with no altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% area with null altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

audio

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (1% average)0% 0% 0% 9% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Should work. Fails in 76% - 100% audio with aria-label attributeBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should work. Fails in 76% - 100% audio with aria-labelledby attributeBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should work. Fails in 76% - 100% audio with title attributeBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% audio with fallback contentBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% audio with no descriptionBadBadBadBadBadBadBetterBad

button

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (89% average)83% 100% 100% 85% 83% 100% 83% 83%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% button containing img with altBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% button containing img with aria-labelBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% button containing img with aria-labelledbyBadGoodGoodBetterBadGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% button containing img with title attributeBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% button with aria-label containing img with null altGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% button with title containing img with null altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% button containing img with no altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% button containing img with null altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% button with aria-label containing img with no altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% button with title containing img with no altGoodGoodGoodBadGoodGoodGoodGood

caption

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (93% average)100% 100% 100% 86% 89% 100% 100% 71%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with caption and thGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodGoodBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with caption but no thBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

dd

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Definition lists with images as bulletsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

div

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (92% average)71% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% ARIA role=headingBetterGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Nested ARIA headingsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

embed

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (42% average)50% 75% 25% 52% 28% 63% 46% 25%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% embed inside figure with figcaptionGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% embed with aria-label attributeGoodBetterBadBetterBadBadBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 76% - 100% embed with aria-labelledby attributeBadBetterBadBetterBadBadBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 76% - 100% embed with title attributeBadBetterBadBadBadBadBetterBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% embed with alt attributeBadBadBadBadBadBadBetterBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% embed with no descriptionBadBadBadBadBadBadBetterBad

fieldset

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (85% average)79% 91% 100% 75% 95% 100% 91% 56%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Yes/No radio buttons inside fieldset elementGoodGoodGoodGoodBadGoodBetterBetter
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% fieldset containing linksBadBetterGoodBadGoodGoodBetterBad
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Yes/No radio buttons without fieldsetBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBetter
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% fieldset containing no controlsGoodGoodGoodBadBetterBetterBetterBetter
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% fieldset used to put border round textGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% fieldset with blank legendBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 26% - 50% fieldset with no legendBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBetter

figcaption

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (83% average)100% 100% 100% 100% 67% 50% 64% 64%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% applet inside figure with figcaption elementGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% embed inside figure with figcaptionGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% img with figcaptionGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterBadBad

figure

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (83% average)100% 100% 100% 100% 67% 50% 64% 64%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% applet inside figure with figcaption elementGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% embed inside figure with figcaptionGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% img with figcaptionGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterBadBad

h1-h6

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (100% average)100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Should work. Works in 100% Heading is img with altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Empty headingGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetter
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Heading is img alt=filenameBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Heading is img with `alt=BadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Heading is img with no altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Heading non-breaking spacesGoodBetterBadGoodBetterGoodBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Heading only punctuationBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBetter
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Heading only spacesGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetter
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Nested headingsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

html

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (69% average)50% 50% 100% 50% 50% 100% 50% 50%
Should work. Works in 100% Page with lang set on the html and p elementsGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% Page with xml:lang set on the html and p elementsBadBadGoodBadBadGoodBadBad

iframe

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (88% average)79% 56% 100% 100% 95% 100% 75% 100%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% iframe with title attributeBadBadGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% iframe with fallback contentGoodBadGoodGoodBetterGoodBadGood
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% iframe with title matching frame filenameBadBadBadGoodBadBadBadGood
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% iframe with blank titleGoodBadGoodGoodBetterGoodBadGood
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% iframe with no fallback content and no titleGoodBadGoodGoodBetterGoodBadGood

img

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (85% average)73% 88% 100% 93% 77% 98% 83% 69%
Should work. Works in 100% Heading is img with altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% Link containing img with altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% Link containing img with titleGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% area and img with alt attributesBadBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% area with alt attribute and img with null altBadGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with aria-label attributeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with aria-labelledby attributeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with title attributeBadBadGoodGoodBadGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% button containing img with altBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% button containing img with aria-labelBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% button containing img with aria-labelledbyBadGoodGoodBetterBadGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% button containing img with title attributeBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% button with aria-label containing img with null altGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% button with title containing img with null altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% img with altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% img with aria-labelBetterGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% img with aria-labelledbyBadGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% img with figcaptionGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterBadBad
Should work. Works in 100% img with titleGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% img with null altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Definition lists with images as bulletsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Heading is img alt=filenameBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Heading is img with `alt=BadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Heading is img with no altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Image map with no name attributeBadBetterBadGoodBetterBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Link containing img with null altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Link containing img without altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Link with aria-label containing img with no altGoodBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Link with aria-labelledby containing img with no altBadBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% Link with title containing img with no altGoodBetterGoodWorseBetterGoodBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% area with no altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% area with null altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% button containing img with no altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% button containing img with null altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% button with aria-label containing img with no altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% button with title containing img with no altGoodGoodGoodBadGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% img with alt set to ASCII art smileyBadBadBadBadBadBadGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% img with alt set to src filenameBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% img with aria-describedbyBadBadBadBadBadBadGoodBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% img with null altand non-null title attributesBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% img with null alt and non-null aria-label attributesBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% img with null alt and non-null aria-labelledby attributesBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% img with server side image mapBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% img without altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

input type=image

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (96% average)91% 100% 100% 89% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Should work. Works in 100% input type=image with altGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=image with aria-label attributeGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=image with aria-labelledby attributeBadGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=image with title attributeGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% input type=image with no altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% input type=image with null altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

input type=radio

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (93% average)100% 100% 100% 100% 90% 100% 88% 75%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Yes/No radio buttons inside fieldset elementGoodGoodGoodGoodBadGoodBetterBetter
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Yes/No radio buttons without fieldsetBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBetter

input type=text

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (96% average)88% 93% 100% 98% 99% 97% 95% 100%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=text inside label with text after controlGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=text inside label with text before and after controlGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterBadGood
Should work. Works in 100% input type=text inside label with text before controlGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=text with aria-describedby attributeGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodBadGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=text with aria-label attributeBadBetterGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% input type=text with aria-labelledby attributeGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% input type=text with label forGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=text with title attributeBadBetterGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% input type=text inside blank labelBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% input type=text with blank label forBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% input with aria-labelledby pointing to role=presentation elementGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% label elements reference controls with duplicate idsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

label

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (98% average)100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 94% 94% 100%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=text inside label with text after controlGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% input type=text inside label with text before and after controlGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetterBadGood
Should work. Works in 100% input type=text inside label with text before controlGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Works in 100% input type=text with label forGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% input type=text inside blank labelBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% input type=text with blank label forBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% label elements reference controls with duplicate idsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

legend

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (85% average)79% 91% 100% 75% 95% 100% 91% 56%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Yes/No radio buttons inside fieldset elementGoodGoodGoodGoodBadGoodBetterBetter
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% fieldset containing linksBadBetterGoodBadGoodGoodBetterBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% fieldset containing no controlsGoodGoodGoodBadBetterBetterBetterBetter
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% fieldset used to put border round textGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% fieldset with blank legendBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 26% - 50% fieldset with no legendBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBetter
Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% CSS stylesheet link with media=auralBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% CSS stylesheet link with media=speechBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

map

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (67% average)40% 60% 100% 94% 45% 100% 74% 11%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% area and img with alt attributesBadBetterGoodGoodBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% area with alt attribute and img with null altBadGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with aria-label attributeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with aria-labelledby attributeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% area with title attributeBadBadGoodGoodBadGoodBetterBad
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Image map with no name attributeBadBetterBadGoodBetterBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% area with no altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% area with null altBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

object

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (38% average)25% 29% 100% 0% 36% 75% 43% 25%
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% object with aria-label attributeGoodBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% object with aria-labelledby attributeBadBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% object with title attributeBadBetterGoodBadBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% object with fallback contentBadBetterGoodBadBetterBadBetterGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% object with alt attributeBadBetterBetterBadBetterBadBetterBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% object with no descriptionBadBetterBetterBadBetterBadBetterBad

p

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (69% average)50% 50% 100% 50% 50% 100% 50% 50%
Should work. Works in 100% Page with lang set on the html and p elementsGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% Page with xml:lang set on the html and p elementsBadBadGoodBadBadGoodBadBad

pre

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Space separated tablesBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

span

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (100% average)100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Should work. Works in 100% input type=text with aria-labelledby attributeGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGood
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Space separated wordsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 1% - 25% input with aria-labelledby pointing to role=presentation elementGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodGood

table

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (77% average)65% 80% 89% 91% 87% 97% 64% 44%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with caption and thGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodGoodBad
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% Data table with role=columnheader headers but no thBadBadBadGoodWorseWorseBadBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with role=gridBetterGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterBetter
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with summary and thGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% Data table with td headers attributeBadGoodGoodBetterBadGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% Data table with th scope on cell headersBadBetterGoodGoodGoodGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with th cell headersGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodBetter
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Layout table with role=presentationGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetter
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Layout table with single cellGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetter
Should fail. Fails in 26% - 50% Data table th cell headers with no scopeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with caption but no thBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with role=noteBetterBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with role=presentationBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with summary but no thBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Data table with thead, tfoot but no thBadBadBadBadBadBadGoodBetter
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with no th elementsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with null summary and no thBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

tbody

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (34% average)0% 0% 0% 100% 90% 75% 0% 0%
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% Data table with role=columnheader headers but no thBadBadBadGoodWorseWorseBadBad

td

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (70% average)48% 73% 75% 96% 83% 94% 50% 42%
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% Data table with role=columnheader headers but no thBadBadBadGoodWorseWorseBadBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% Data table with td headers attributeBadGoodGoodBetterBadGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Layout table with role=presentationGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetter
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Layout table with single cellGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodGoodBetter

tfoot

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Data table with thead, tfoot but no thBadBadBadBadBadBadGoodBetter

th

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (78% average)66% 88% 100% 86% 82% 100% 64% 39%
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with caption and thGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodGoodBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with role=gridBetterGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterBetter
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with summary and thGoodGoodGoodBetterBetterGoodBetterBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% Data table with td headers attributeBadGoodGoodBetterBadGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 26% - 50% Data table with th scope on cell headersBadBetterGoodGoodGoodGoodBadBad
Should work. Fails in 1% - 25% Data table with th cell headersGoodGoodGoodBetterGoodGoodGoodBetter
Should fail. Fails in 26% - 50% Data table th cell headers with no scopeBadBetterGoodBetterBetterGoodBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with caption but no thBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with role=noteBetterBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with role=presentationBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with summary but no thBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with no th elementsBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% Data table with null summary and no thBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

thead

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Should fail. Fails in 51% - 75% Data table with thead, tfoot but no thBadBadBadBadBadBadGoodBetter

tr

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (34% average)0% 0% 0% 100% 90% 75% 0% 0%
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% Data table with role=columnheader headers but no thBadBadBadGoodWorseWorseBadBad

video

Screen ReaderNVDAJAWSVoiceOver
BrowserIEFFCrIEFFCrMaciOS
Reliability when used correctly (24% average)67% 24% 0% 9% 7% 0% 57% 57%
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% video with aria-label attributeGoodBetterBadBadBadBadBetterBetter
Should work. Fails in 76% - 100% video with aria-labelledby attributeBadBetterBadBadBadBadBetterBetter
Should work. Fails in 51% - 75% video with title attributeGoodBetterBadBadBadBadBetterBetter
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% video with fallback contentBetterBadBadBadBadBadBadBad
Should fail. Fails in 76% - 100% video with no descriptionBadBadBadBadBadBadBadBad

Key

Tests expected to fail (due to authoring errors) are marked with Expected to Fail.

Test notes

All tests were carried out with screen reader factory settings. JAWS in particular has a wide variety of settings controlling exactly what gets spoken.

Screen readers allow users to interact in different modes, and can produce very different results in each mode. The modes used in these tests are:

In the "What the user hears" column: