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text/html page with mismatching lang and xml:lang on the html element Screen reader compatibility

Last updated: September 11, 2022

Expected Result: works in a screen reader

Actual Result: works in all tested screen readers

In English 'active table' is pronounced 'act-if tay-bill'. In French 'active table' is pronounced 'act-eef tab-le'. In English 'radio' is pronounced 'ray-day-oh'. In French 'radio' is pronounced 'rad-yoh'. In German 'radio' is pronounced 'rah-di-oh'. In English 'dame' is pronounced 'daim'. In French 'dame' is pronounced 'damm'. In German 'dame' is pronounced 'dam-he'.

By default NVDA 2018 uses Windows OneCore voices, which only support language switching if the appropriate Windows language pack is installed. Changing NVDA settings to use the eSpeak voice allows language switching without additional language packs.

WCAG Technique: WCAG 3.1.1 WCAG 3.1.2

Code used for this test:


        <html lang='fr' xml:lang='de'>
        <head> 
            <title>Test for mismatching lang and xml:lang</title>
            <meta charset='utf-8'>
            <link rel='stylesheet' href='SR-content-lang.css'>
            <style>
                div:lang(fr)::before { content: "Un, deux, trois"; } 
                div:lang(de)::before { content: "Eins, zwei, drei"; } 
            </style>
        </head>
        <body>
            <h1 lang='en'>Following elements inherit page language - hover to view CSS :lang()</h1>

            <p>garage</p>
            <p>double</p>
            <p>dame</p>
            <div></div>
        </body>
        </html>
    

Reliability Trend

This graph shows reliability over time for this code in NVDA, JAWS and Voiceover. Other screen readers don't have enough historical data yet to plot trends.

100%80%60%40%20%0%20152016201720182019202020212022100%

Change History

Last updated: September 11, 2022

Screen readerBrowserModeNotesWhat the user hears
OK NVDA 2022.2Chrome 105 ReadingSpeech pronounced as lang=fr, and CSS matches :lang(fr). Ga-raj. Doo-ble. Damm. Un, deux, trois.
OK NVDA 2022.2FF102 ReadingSpeech pronounced as lang=fr, and CSS matches :lang(fr). Ga-raj. Doo-ble. Damm. Un, deux, trois.
OK NVDA 2022.2Edge 105 ReadingSpeech pronounced as lang=fr, and CSS matches :lang(fr). Ga-raj. Doo-ble. Damm. Un, deux, trois.
OK JAWS 2022.2207.25Chrome 105 ReadingSpeech pronounced as lang=fr, and CSS matches :lang(fr). Ga-raj. Doo-ble. Damm. Un, deux, trois.
OK JAWS 2022.2207.25FF102 ReadingSpeech pronounced as lang=fr, and CSS matches :lang(fr). Ga-raj. Doo-ble. Damm. Un, deux, trois.
OK JAWS 2022.2207.25Edge 105 ReadingSpeech pronounced as lang=fr, and CSS matches :lang(fr). Ga-raj. Doo-ble. Damm. Un, deux, trois.
OK VoiceOver macOS 12.5Safari 15.6 ReadingSpeech pronounced as lang=fr, and CSS matches :lang(fr). Ga-raj. Doo-ble. Damm. Un, deux, trois.
OK VoiceOver iOS 15.6Safari iOS 15.6TouchSpeech pronounced as lang=fr, and CSS matches :lang(fr). Ga-raj. Doo-ble. Damm. Un, deux, trois.

SortSite rules: AccPageLangMissing AccPhraseLangMissing

Test notes

All tests were carried out with screen reader factory settings. JAWS in particular has a wide variety of settings controlling exactly what gets spoken.

Screen readers allow users to interact in different modes, and can produce very different results in each mode. The modes used in these tests are:

In the "What the user hears" column: